Prace Geograficzne, z. 116

Redaktorzy: Chalov R., Kamykowska M., Krzemień K.
Rok wydania: 2006
Język publikacji: angielski

ISSN 1644-3586

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Human impact on the hydrological regimen and fluvial processes of the River Wda
Autor: Zygmunt Babiński, Danuta Szumińska
Strony: 9-22
Summary - read more..
The Wda River drainage basin is characterised by relatively stable hydrological processes, water level and discharge. This natural annual discharge pattern is modified by varied land uses throughout the drainage basin and by the use of the River Wda for irrigation and hydropower. In the case of the land use, anthropopressure involves a retention of some of the water in the meadows during the vegetation period resulting in a lowering of water levels in watercourses. The utilisation of river water causes an increased intensity and degree of fluctuation of the water level of the River Wda downstream from the hydropower plant. In the past, this had an effect on channel processes, but with the recent reduction of human intervention in the water environment a trend towards re-naturalisation of the channel has been observed. This study showed that in order to maintain stable morphodynamic conditions in the river channel while utilising outwash plain rivers, there is a need to keep discharge fluctuation at a low level.
Changes in geomorphology of new shoreline after the filling of the Włocławek artificial lake
Autor: Mieczysław Banach
Strony: 23-32
Summary - read more..
This long-term (35 year) study of the coastal zone of the Włocławek Reservoir on the River Vistula presents three stages in its evolution: 1) acceleration of the transformation rate, 2) variable falling rates of transformation, 3) a dynamic equilibrium. These stages may be regarded as typical for medium sized lowland valley artificial lakes (20-100 km2 in area and 0.1-1.0 km3 in volume) with low water level fluctuations (annual amplitudes of ? 1 m, and daily amplitudes of 10-20 cm).
Hydraulic resistance in river channels and its relationship TO channel processes
Autor: Nikolay B. Baryshnikov
Strony: 33-40
Summary - read more..
The author reviews methods of calculating hydraulic resistance in river channels. Factors determining the resistance, such as bottom dunes, bottom irregularities, channel form-factor, etc. are identified. Particular attention is paid to a mutual relationship between hydraulic resistance and the channel form-factor.
Catastrophic earthquakes in the Altai Mts, their aftermath and impact on slope and fluvial processes
Autor: Gennadiy Y. Baryshnikov, Boris N. Luzgin, Valeriy S. Imaev
Strony: 41-48
Summary - read more..
The paper presents a study into a catastrophic seismic event rating 9-10 on the international scale MRS-64. The event took place on 27 September 2003 in the Altai Republic of the Russian Federation. Immediately after the event, the authors studied its impact on slope and fluvial processes.
The river Katun, its channel morphology and changes due to river engineering and alluvium extraction
Autor: Konstantin M. Berkovich, Svetlana N. Rulyova
Strony: 49-56
Summary - read more..
The paper discusses the main features of the transformation of the semi-mountainous channel of the River Katun (Altai region) on the basis of long-term studies. A mobile braided channel in its lowermost reaches was trained to improve navigation conditions and large scale sand and gravel excavation operated over a long period of time. The resulting incision of the channel has caused a significant change to its morphological pattern.
Comparative analysis and typology of channel processes in mountain, foreland and flatland rivers
Autor: Roman S. Chalov
Strony: 57-72
Summary - read more..
The paper explains principles of channel process typology on the basis of an analysis of the conditions of water impact on the channel in rivers with the calm and turbulent flow. The nature of the bedload transport and its granulometric composition (sand with clay, sand, gravel or coarser) were taken into account. An explanation is also proposed of the mechanism by which channel processes are manifested in flatland, foreland and mountain rivers. The author proposes analytical formulae for the determination of the critical gradient corresponding to the transition from one channel process type to another, i.e. flatland to foreland to mountain rivers and from one mountain channel type to the other.
On the evolution of a foreland river network
Autor: Alexey V. Chernov
Strony: 73-80
Summary - read more..
Foreland river channels and river systems are characterised by extreme variability caused by changes in external factors driving fluvial morphology. Two foreland areas were considered: the southern part of the Minusinskaya Basin in the Sayan Foreland and the Priazovskaya Plain of the Western Caucasian Foreland. In the former area there is an example of a huge transformation of the River Yenisey channel and in the latter area there is the gradual formation of flatland in the River Kuban delta. In both cases the transformation of the fluvial morphology is driven by the changing volume of water in the rivers during the Quaternary glacial and interstades.
Navigation on the tailwaters of the Nizhny Novgorod hydropower dam on the River Volga
Autor: Rostislav D. Frolov
Strony: 81-88
Summary - read more..
Ways to optimise discharge control with a cascade of retention dams on the Upper Volga River were identified. The characteristics of the diurnal cycle of navigation depth were described and a restructuring of the timetable for large shipping was proposed.
The geomorphological effects of flash floods in mountain river channels. the case of the River Wilsznia (western Carpathian mountains)
Autor: Bogdana Izmaiłow, Maria Kamykowska, Kazimierz Krzemień
Strony: 89-97
Summary - read more..
The objective of the River Wilsznia channel study was to identify patterns of river channel development during extreme flood events in an area with diverse geological resistance and varied land use. A flash flood event produced local erosional downcutting and lateral erosion along bedrock reaches, while channel migration and avulsion prevailed along alluvial reaches.
Deltas in dam-retained lakes in the Carpathian part of the Vistula drainage basin
Autor: Adam Łajczak
Strony: 99-110
Summary - read more..
Delta growth rates in dam-retained lakes depend as much on the volume and granularity of the supplied sediment material, as on the lake's capacity to permanently retain the sediment. The shape of deltas in these water bodies is influenced by the valley floor morphology and also by relationships between seasonal fluctuations in the lake's water level and the annual river water and suspended and bedload supply pattern. The fastest growing deltas form in long and deep valley lakes featuring a slow water exchange cycle and large amounts of material, mainly suspended. Nearly all of the deltas considered in this study are of the low-energy type, as they mainly consist of sandy and dusty material. The role of gravel can only be expected to grow as the lakes are gradually filled in with deposits. There is a difference between deltas forming in lakes with high water level fluctuations and in lakes with a more stable water level with the former forming a longer, smoother longitudinal profile without a discrete boundary between the topset, foreset and the bottomset. Such a fuzzy boundary is caused by a cyclical shifting movement of the zone with the most intensive process of alternating deposition and erosion which occurs at the boundary of the permanently submerged and periodically exposed part of the delta.
Patterns in foreland fluvial processes
Autor: Nicolai N. Nazarov, Alexey V. Chernov
Strony: 111-118
Summary - read more..
Foreland and mountain river channels differ markedly in terms of gradient, bedload composition and channel type as a result of differing geology and development processes in these two environments. To understand these differences, a comparison was made between the foreland rivers of the Northern Caucasus and the Western Ural Mountains. The foreland rivers selected represent the type of fluvial process characteristic for areas just below mountains, where the bedload is deposited and channels start branching out. The Western Ural rivers are peculiar in having developed flatland type channels while still within the mountains and meandering channels upon entering mid-mountain plains. This diversity of fluvial processes can be attributed to differences in geotectonic movements between the mountains and the foreland. Indeed, in the Caucasus, these have different directions and high amplitude, while in the Ural Mts. they are unidirectional and with small amplitude.
Patterns in the development of horizontal river channel transformations in the Republic of Udmurtiya, Russian Federation
Autor: Larisa N. Petukhova, Ivan I. Rysin
Strony: 119-132
Summary - read more..
The paper presents a summary of a five year study into lateral migration of 55 channel reaches representing rivers of various sizes and running through various landscapes in the Republic of Udmurtiya in European Russia. Morphodynamic channel types were identified using large scale topographic maps. Principal factors influencing horizontal transformations of river channels were identified and relationships were determined between the river bank retreat rates and certain morphometric indicators. geoecological monitoring, fluvial processes, morphodynamic river channel types, horizontal river channel transformations.
The impact of active debris-flows from tributary valleys on channel development in mountain rivers (example of the River Baksan)
Autor: Nadezda N. Vinogradova
Strony: 133-142
Summary - read more..
The impact of valley debris-flows (siela2 in Russian) on the main channel development and fluvial processes involves a direct influence on the channel itself and an indirect influence of a modified pattern of water and bedload discharge. Taking into account the mutual influences of the main river and the valley debris-flows four main types of debris-flow impact nodes (DIN) were identified in the Baksan valley. The most evident impact of valley debris flows on the main river channel and its longitudinal profile can be seen in the type one impact zone. It characteristically features torrential cones and evident nick-points of the longitudinal profile. Three types of reaches can be identified in the main river channel in this zone: headwater reach, direct impact reach and a reach with active transformation of the supplied debris. This DIN tends to evolve at the confluences with tributaries with highly frequent debris-flows containing large volumes of material.